Circular Protocol ( 9459 Visitors )

Whitepaper

Introduction


Question: "What is Circular?"

Short Answer: "Circular is a 4th Generation layer 1 blockchain designed to address the typical limitation of the previous generations L1s and to support healthcare, DeFi and GameFi applications"

This project was conceived with the aim of finding data auditing technologies suitable for medical records and clinical trials. In 2024, a significant portion of the global population still lacks access to quality medical services and products, with healthcare in economically disadvantaged countries being even more precarious. Instances of medical malpractice affecting patients and consumers are alarmingly common, and often there are inadequate legal mechanisms to safeguard them from healthcare-related malpractice. In cases where a physician's error leads to harm, only a minority of patients receive compensation to cover their losses. While medical professionals and their institutions are typically covered by insurance, there is no mechanism to address the tarnishing of their reputation due to errors. Consequently, some healthcare providers resort to concealing their mistakes. They possess control over patient data and system logs, which means patient records can be manipulated or tampered with when necessary. A similar scenario exists for pharmaceutical companies. If a vaccine is released and individuals are harmed, prior to any investigation, companies can manipulate their data to shield or mitigate their liabilities and responsibilities. This raises important questions:

"Would you be willing to pay a small fee for a certified, tamper-proof medical record?"

"Would you feel safer receiving vaccinations or taking medication if clinical data were certified and transparent?"

If your answer is "yes," then this project offers a way to contribute to a better world. Blockchains are valuable tools for enhancing transparency and safety in healthcare when used appropriately. However, it is crucial to understand that the healthcare industry cannot solely rely on public blockchains. Therefore, to provide a blockchain infrastructure for the healthcare industry, we must accommodate not only public but also private blockchains. The rationale for this assertion extends beyond privacy concerns. While technologies like Zero Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) can ensure data privacy, the issue partly lies in the legal and temporal persistence of data. For instance, if a medical practice opens today and later closes its doors, the data must be retained for a certain period but should also be purged at a specified point in time. On a public blockchain, data may outlast its utility, leading to prolonged liabilities associated with that data. In technical terms, a blockchain infrastructure must incorporate features that ensure compliance with diverse regulations in various countries, such as GDPR and HIPAA. Consequently, the ideal infrastructure should be purposefully designed to meet the specific requirements of the healthcare industry (Decentralized MedTech). However, this does not preclude the possibility of using the same infrastructure for other industries, such as DeFi and GameFi.

At Circular, we have designed and will continue to innovate upon a 4th generation Layer 1 blockchain. Our design is inherently tailored to fulfill the majority of the regulatory requirements within the healthcare industry and can easily adapt to unmet needs with minimal development effort. Furthermore, we are implementing features that support adoption in other industries, including DeFi and GameFi, which we believe will be crucial in the near future. As a 4th generation Layer 1 blockchain, we are committed to simplifying the user and developer experience.

Our name, "Circular," reflects our belief in a paradigm where every user operates on an equal footing, and we are dedicated to enhancing and refining this network for the community we serve and belong to. We hold decentralization as an uncompromising value that must be upheld and maximized for the benefit of the user community. While this project includes a cryptocurrency element, it is not its primary focus; instead, it serves as a means to facilitate transactions and vote on ways to improve the ecosystem. We do not have all the answers and are here to create something positive, learning and growing together with your support, contributions, recommendations, and critiques. Our focus is on building a collective future, where the crypto component is just one piece of a larger puzzle.

Moving forward, the rest of this white paper will delve into more technical details, and we have strived to strike a balance to ensure it remains comprehensible to readers with varying backgrounds. It is essential to emphasize that this is not a mere project in development; it is a fully established Layer 1 protocol, with current and future developments aimed at maintaining, improving, innovating, and delivering a best-in-class solution for Web3. Blockchain technology has evolved significantly since the inception of Bitcoin, giving rise to thousands of projects exploring various aspects of token transactions and innovative paradigms. One of the most notable advancements in blockchain is the emergence of Smart Contracts, which are self-executing pieces of code executed by network nodes. Smart Contracts have enabled the development of Decentralized Applications (DApps), marking a significant shift in the role of blockchains. With Smart Contracts, blockchains have transformed from simple decentralized ledgers into decentralized processing systems capable of running applications. This shift empowers users to harness the benefits of decentralization within these applications.

However, the introduction of Smart Contracts has underscored the need for higher throughput, especially when executing complex transactions and Smart Contract code. This demand has led to a race to increase throughput and address scalability issues that have long plagued traditional Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanisms. Additionally, the extended finalization time of first-generation blockchains, coupled with environmental sustainability concerns, has prompted many projects to transition to Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus mechanisms. PoS relies on participants staking a certain amount of coins as collateral, which can be forfeited if a node behaves inappropriately. While PoS offers benefits in terms of scalability, it comes at a cost. It introduces financial centralization, as only those who can afford to stake a significant number of coins can validate transactions.

Additionally, PoS is perceived as less secure compared to PoW, as the "work" in PoW ensures the difficulty of tampering with blockchain data. The objective of this project is to introduce a novel blockchain paradigm that addresses ongoing challenges and provides a sustainable solution and roadmap for building an inclusive, scalable, secure, genuinely decentralized, and high-performing blockchain ecosystem for the Web 3.0 community. To achieve this goal, we prioritize sustainable mining practices, increase the number of validators, and implement a reputation-based system to enhance security. Our aim is to create a blockchain ecosystem that benefits all users, regardless of their financial resources or technical expertise. Our team is currently focused on implementing the remaining components and strengthening our workforce to better support the project and advance along our roadmap. We understand the importance of establishing a robust and reliable infrastructure capable of meeting the diverse needs of our user base. As a result, we are committed to investing in the ongoing development of Circular, ensuring that our ecosystem remains at the forefront of the blockchain industry. We eagerly anticipate sharing further updates as we make continued progress toward our vision of creating a sustainable, scalable, and decentralized blockchain ecosystem.

Our Partners



Circular Protocol Architecture

This section offers a detailed technical insight into Circular's network and node architecture. The name "Circular" aptly conveys the essence of our network, where every node enjoys equal rights and benefits, resembling a round table of peers. To ensure uniformity and fairness, identical code runs on each node. Figure 1 provides an overview of our architecture, which primarily consists of nodes and a handful of redundant microservices, namely the P2P Discovery Service, Ticketing System, and Network Access Gateways. These microservices have been designed with redundancy in mind, strategically eliminating single points of failure. Additionally, they are open source and have been optimized to prevent becoming bottlenecks in the system. This architecture is meticulously engineered to enhance the reliability, stability, and robustness of Circular's network.


Figure 1 - Circular Architecture

Peer-to-Peer Discovery Service


The Peer-To-Peer Discovery Service (P2PDS) plays a supportive role within Circular's architecture by facilitating the registration of each node and providing them with a comprehensive list of all other peers within the network. This service proves especially valuable during a node's initial setup, as it enables the node to seamlessly register with the network and access a roster of other nodes for connection. Furthermore, nodes regularly download network updates from their peers as part of an ongoing process. This ensures that new nodes entering the network are efficiently discovered and integrated into the system. P2PDS serves as a crucial component in maintaining the network's connectivity and scalability, making it a fundamental part of Circular's architecture.

Ticketing System


The Ticketing System (TS) is responsible for distributing atomic timestamps represented by a clock timestamp in the UTC timezone, plus an incremental number that is increased every time a new timestamp is generated. This incremental number is reset to zero every day. The Ticketing System's primary duty is to ensure the atomic sequence of events, preventing transactions from being sorted improperly leading to inconsistency. It is used in non-critical points in the workflow and does not represent a bottleneck for the architecture. A new ticket is typically requested when a new transaction is created or when a new block is created. To use a simple metaphor, the Ticketing system is the equivalent of the number used in stores to be served.

Decentralized Storage Gateway


A high-performance blockchain is characterized by a significant increase in data size within a short span of time. While blockchains like Bitcoin experience slow growth, advancements in data storage technology have outpaced it. However, for a blockchain infrastructure like Circular, it remains crucial to ensure that the minimum storage requirements are manageable (e.g., 512 Gb), allowing individuals to afford nodes with reasonably priced hard drives. To tackle this challenge, the Decentralized Storage Gateway (DSG) will employ Zero Knowledge Proofs to compress and securely store multiple copies of the oldest blocks. Currently, we are far from encountering this problem, as the implementation of DSG is still pending. However, the protocol has been defined and finalized, and additional information will be revealed as the project progresses.

Network Access Gateway


The Network Access Gateway (NAG) is a simple yet critical service within Circular's architecture, responsible for routing new transactions towards different nodes by generating a random SubNet index and then a random node to receive the transaction. The algorithm used by the NAG is designed to ensure high throughput while distributing transactions to different subnets, keeping them at their optimal work regimen. To achieve this, each gateway collects network analytics in order to balance the workload and optimize transaction routing. By dynamically adapting to changes in network traffic and demand, the NAG ensures that transactions are processed quickly and efficiently, while maintaining a high level of security and reliability. The NAG earns an Entry Fee for injecting the transaction in the network. NAGs are open source, and third parties can provision their own NAGs.

Auto-Progressive Sharding


In Circular's architecture, all available nodes are benchmarked and classified based on their overall performance, as determined by their Processing Power(CPU+GPU) and Connectivity Speed. Nodes are organized into shards (subnets), with Subnet 1 containing nodes with the lowest level of performance and higher subnet indices representing nodes with higher performance (Progressive Sharding). This approach ensures that the overall performance of the network is not limited by the slowest node, while still allowing all nodes to process transactions and blocks. While lower subnets process a smaller set of blockchains, higher subnets can access more blockchains. Conversely, high performance subnets have visibility of all available blockchains, enabling them to process transactions and blocks more quickly and efficiently. By organizing nodes into subnets based on their performance, Circular can ensure that the network operates at peak efficiency, while also providing nodes with the necessary resources to process transactions and blocks in a timely manner. This approach represents a solution to the challenges of scalability and performance in blockchain technology, enabling Circular to deliver a scalable, secure, and truly decentralized blockchain ecosystem. Each subnet will contain a minimum and maximum number of nodes (Parameters) and when new nodes join the network, the topology will be rearranged automatically (Automatic Progressive Sharding). Looking at the current status of the network the lowest subnets should be able to deliver a minimum of ~1,500TPS while the highest subnets should be capable of delivering a much higher transaction rate (to be assessed but estimated to be not less than ~5,000TPS). Using the Auto-Progressive Sharding the infrastructure will be able to reach any desired throughput scaling almost linearly with the number of shards.

Multi-Chain


Circular's infrastructure is designed to handle multiple blockchains simultaneously (figure 2), allowing the network to scale linearly with the number of nodes. The throughput scales with the number of nodes on the network, enabling it to handle any potential throughput, as long as there are enough nodes.

Figure 2 - Multi-Chain Transactions

Circular's innovative architecture empowers nodes to manage multiple blockchains simultaneously, enabling them to mine blocks on different chains concurrently. This paradigm creates strong incentives for processing more transactions, ultimately generating revenues for node owners. Notably, Circular's architecture is environmentally friendly, as it operates without an excessive energy footprint. Every action performed by the network serves a purpose, ensuring that no energy or time is wasted. In contrast to most single-chain networks where nodes often wait for the next block to be mined or validated before progressing, Circular's approach eliminates such inefficiencies. This unique feature allows for the seamless coordination of multiple blockchains, making the most efficient use of resources. These multiple blockchains can be configured as either public or private, each with distinct settings. Moreover, different chains can operate on specific portions of the network, catering to compliance requirements or other specific needs in different countries for example. The concept of multiple blockchains running on either the entire network or a subset of nodes gives rise to the notion of a multi-network, where each blockchain operates within its virtual network comprising selected nodes. This flexibility opens up a world of possibilities for Circular, enabling it to accomplish tasks that other Layer 1 networks cannot achieve. This, in turn, provides powerful enterprise tools across various industries. Circular's architecture empowers businesses and industries with cost-effective, decentralized solutions that can adapt to diverse requirements.


Figure 3 - Real Decentralization on Private Chains

From a scalability perspective, Circular's approach of running multiple chains on the same network allows for the provision of private blockchains at a significantly lower cost, all while preserving true decentralization. This stands in contrast to many Layer 1 networks that often require the creation of physically separate networks for their side chains or co-chains, which may not always maintain decentralization. Circular's architecture empowers businesses and industries with cost-effective, decentralized solutions that can adapt to diverse requirements.

Figure 4 - Multi-Chain parallelism

In a Multi-Chain paradigm transactions from one chain to the other are absolutely allowed when there is the need. The only limitation is that only subnets that manage both chains can process those transactions. The "Mining" of a block is executed only by a single node and it requires the process of calculating hashes with specific characteristics. The mining difficulty is fine tuned in order to maintain a desired block rate (typically 3 sec).

Transactions

Each transaction on Circular is delivered to the nodes carrying:
Once the transaction is executed, the following two fields are added to the transaction:
The Node that receives the transaction earns a Broadcasting Fee. There are different types of transactions that can be processed. The highest priority is reserved for coin/token transactions. Following the coin/token transaction, there are certificates, Smart Contracts, and User-Defined transactions. In order to accelerate the execution of less priority transactions, the user can pay a Priority Fee to ensure a faster execution. The Priority Fee changes the order of transactions in the internal pending transactions list. Zero-Knowledge Proofing is a technique that enables Circular to extract signatures from the client's data without looking at the data itself and storing them into transactions.
Native Wallet Addresses for transactions can be the traditional hexadecimal strings calculated as the hash of the wallet public key

Wallet Address = Hash(Public Key) 0x04c872bc96e2c3d9ff7f2fc822e4535da0d307...

or they can also have a human-readable address which is a domain

Domain = 'my_domain.crc'.

The extension ".crc" depends from the blockchain. In particular the extension ".crc" is for all domains on the mainnet, while a different domain extension is assigned on the other blockchains. Domain names can also be assigned to smart contracts instead of using the regular hexadecimal address.

Blocks

Blocks on Circular have a header that collects information about their content. The blocks have :

  • BlockID (or Block Height)
  • previous block hash
  • logic timestamp of when it was minted
  • Nonce
  • Node ID
  • Node Signature
  • Block Hash (or Merkle Root)

Unlike traditional blockchain infrastructures that use a Merkle tree to hash all the different transactions, Circular's block has a single hash per transaction. The hash is calculated as the hash of the transaction plus the block header itself, the same level of security of a Merkle tree at the cost of a smaller set of data and faster execution. The node that executes the block minting receives the collection of the Priority Fees (if any) associated with each transaction in the block and a Mining Reward. The Priority Fee is an optional fee that users can decide to pay to speedup the processing of a transaction. On Circular there is no fixed blocksize and two consecutive blocks could have different size depending from the machine that is minting the block and other variables. The blocksize is a dynamic variable and is controlled in real time to maximize the overall architecture performance.


Figure 5 - Blockchain Block Structure

Circular's entire blockchains are saved on the nodes in three different modes depending on the software version and the computing device:

  • simple JSON formatted files (one per block)
  • binary files (one per block)
  • local SQL DB.

Edge blockchain backups implemented on DB/Cloud infrastructures can be used to speed up search procedures instead of relying on nodes. The Maximum Number of transactions per block is a configurable parameter and is dynamically assigned depending on the traffic volume and overall network performance.

Circular Consensus


The Circular Consensus algorithm, known as Proof of Reputation (PoR), offers an efficient and straightforward method for achieving consensus within a blockchain network. PoR is designed to emulate human behavior in consensus-building, where individual credibility plays a crucial role in influencing votes. Unlike Proof of Stake (PoS), which penalizes misbehavior by staked amounts, PoR relies on future earnings as a deterrent.
PoS can be problematic if a malefactor steals an amount larger than the stake, and it has raised concerns about creating financial centralization, as only those who can afford the stake can operate a node. In PoR, transaction fees are adjusted based on a reputation index ranging from 0 to 1.
A fully reputable node ( reputation=1 ) earns the entire transaction fee, while a less reputable node (e.g., with a reputation index of 0.5) earns a reduced fee:

(earned fee = fee * reputation)

Nodes enhance their reputation by consistently performing well and aligning with the majority consensus. Conversely, nodes lose reputation when they are in disagreement with the majority. Each disagreement results in a decrease in reputation. When a node creates a new block, the first step is to broadcast it to the entire network. Upon receiving the block, all other nodes validate various aspects, including the sender's identity, the integrity of hashes, and the validity of transactions within the block. Each node responds with a signed statement indicating either acceptance or rejection of the block. The initiating node collects these responses and compiles them into a report. If a node receives the block and agrees with its contents, it removes the block's transactions from its pending transaction list. After broadcasting the final report to the network, the initiating node calculates the final response based on the responses received from other nodes. This process ensures that consensus is reached efficiently and effectively within the Circular network.


Figure 6.1 a)Block broadcasting - b)Consensus Report Filing

The final outcome is determined by majority consensus. The report is then sent to all nodes that reported responses different from the final outcome to force the acceptance of the new block. At the reception of the Report, each node validates the response of every other node in the network through their signatures. In the basic implementation of this mechanism, every node is assigned a weight of 1.


Figure 6.2 Report back only to nodes in disagreement

The reputation mechanism in the Circular Consensus algorithm truthful and reliable nodes are considered stable and more credible. Nodes that tend to have a diverging behavior will be marked as suspicious nodes, and their reputations lowered, eventually resulting in a complete exclusion from the network.

This consensus mechanism, combined with the ticketing system, offers a fork-proof blockchain while allowing parallel block minting on co-chains. By adopting the PoR, blockchain networks can achieve efficient consensus, maintain security, and establish a reliable reputation system for their nodes. One of the key features of Circular blockchains is its flexibility. The Circular stack offers native transaction formats, such as coins/Tokens, Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs), Certificates, Signatures, and Smart Contracts. Additionally, developers add new transaction formats to the infrastructure. This flexibility enables Circular to support virtually any kind of application that doesn't need to be tied to a coin/token and due to its multi-chain feature support multiple native coins/tokens.

Circular Node


Circular's node architecture is designed to be simple and efficient, with each node implementing all the necessary functions to process transactions, blocks, and smart contracts. Figure 6 illustrates the internal structure of a Circular node.


Figure 7 - Circular Node Architecture

At the entry point of the architecture is the Web Server (WS), which enables the node to interact with the rest of the network using a TCP/IP based protocol. All communications between nodes use signatures to ensure that each party can always be identified. Transactions are handled by the Transaction Manager (TM), which parses incoming transactions and redirects them to the appropriate blockchain or smart contracts. Each regular transaction is added to the pending transaction list, which is available for each blockchain instance, along with the specific settings for that blockchain. The Miner Scheduler (MS) is responsible for checking pending transactions on different blockchain instances and, when there are the right conditions, create a new block. MS requests a new ticket and prepares the block for the miner. Mining is always executed from a single Node at a time through a ticketing order, and the miner executes the mining process according to the difficulty level and other specific settings for that blockchain. Once a block has been mined, the Circular Consensus mechanism is executed to ensure that the block is approved and added to the blockchain. The node also periodically sends requests to services or nodes to update the Nodes List and other information necessary to perform its tasks. Finally, blocks that are approved are saved through the Disk Manager, which stores blocks and transactions in simple files or a local SQL database, depending on the type of hardware used for the node. Circular's node architecture is designed to be scalable, secure, and efficient, enabling nodes to process transactions and blocks quickly and easily while maintaining a high level of security and reliability.

Hyper Code


Hyper Code (HC) is the powerful Virtual Machine currently under development for Circular's nodes. HC provides the ability to run smart contracts in two modes: interpreter and compiled.
In interpreter mode, the source code is executed directly, which is slower but suitable for non-cyclic code (without loops/searches or recursion).
In compiled mode, the code is faster and has more efficient execution.

One of the most exciting features of Hyper Code is bringing is its capability to allocate routines on GPUs to execute parallel tasks. Complex algorithms that can be parallelized can benefit from the GPU's ability to process many calculations simultaneously. In healthcare applications it might be required for DApps to access off-chain data (clouds or DBs) to analyze trends before performing a transaction. These applications are obviously slow routines and they can be launched in background to complete the execution in two steps. Proton IDE is a multi-language development environment used to create smart contract projects running on HC. The interface is similar to other development environment to facilitate its adoption and reduce friction for new developers. HC can be run as a component of the node, a separate process, or a remote service, providing flexibility for different needs. This includes the possibility of running a compact and self-contained system on a low-performance device, or running in a data center as a shared resource. HC is a parallel virtual machine that can run multiple programs simultaneously, making it a valuable addition to Circular's architecture. It is designed to address the performance issues of executing smart contracts, offering a significant boost to what developers can achieve on this next-generation Web 3.0 infrastructure.

Figure 8 - Proton IDE

Hyper Block


Hyper Block (HB) is a revolutionary user interface that enables the creation of smart contracts, known as Hyper Code, without any coding knowledge. With its blueprint-style charts, HB seamlessly converts your designs into Hyperlang code and compiled it for you. HB leverages AI to support the smart contract auditing. ˇp>

Figure 9 - Hyper Block Smart Contract Editor (not an actual Hyper Block Image)

At the heart of HB's design philosophy is the belief that the best code is no code. With this in mind, the interface has been carefully crafted to allow even non-coders to easily develop decentralized algorithms with ease and intuitiveness. By using a codeless development environment, HB makes it possible to leverage a library of predefined blocks, which reduces errors and increases productivity. With the use of these blocks, creating highly optimized code becomes effortless, and getting stuck on errors that could be easily avoided becomes a thing of the past. Overall, HB's codeless interface is a game changer for those seeking to create smart contracts without having to write a single line of code. HB has not be developed yet, but it is one of the few features that will be released soon.

Performance Balancing using AI


Another upcoming feature that will augment Circularís architecture is the Performance Balancer (PB), a neural network based component that will collect data on the different nodes and subnets and generate single-node and single-chain settings that will be propagated to the nodes to ensure optimal architectural performances. In a decentralized network, nodes vary greatly in terms of their CPU/GPU and connectivity capabilities. The aim of the PB is to always maintain optimal and steady flows of transactions across the entire architecture.


Figure 10 - AI performance optimizer

We have already implemented an initial prototype, but we are eagerly awaiting the availability of real data to train the model and assess its performance in real-world scenarios. Neural networks are known to be highly effective in managing systems with a large number of parameters, providing exceptional resilience and rapid adaptability in response to new unpredicted situations.
However, it's essential to note that the quality and quantity of data used to train the model will play a significant role in determining its effectiveness. Therefore, it's critical to obtain as much traffic data as possible to train and fine-tune the model, resulting in the best possible configurations for the network nodes and ultimately enhancing the overall performance of the network.

Circular SDK


Circular is committed to being a fully open source blockchain framework, and the complete codebase will be released once all software components have been finalized. The framework is built using C++ for several reasons. Firstly, C++ is a low-level programming language that provides better control over the hardware and memory, making it suitable for building high-performance systems. Secondly, C++ is a widely used language in the development of blockchain systems and has an extensive developer community that can help to improve the code and ensure its security. Finally, the use of C++ allows us to create an efficient and scalable framework that can support a high volume of transactions and smart contracts while maintaining decentralization and security. Circular provides a complete SDK and CRC standards documentation, offering support for 9 different programming languages. This SDK allows developers to easily create applications that can run on any operating system or platform, from IoT devices to mobile phones and computers. As the adoption of Circular grows, we will continue to expand our developer community resources on our portal to provide support and answer any questions that arise.






Our integration process is straightforward and typically takes no more than a few hours for coding and testing. We are committed to making the integration process as seamless as possible for developers. Furthermore, we are excited to announce that we have an Arduino implementation available, inviting developers to create innovative IoT solutions that can leverage our infrastructure and low transaction fees. To support the development of these innovative solutions on our platform, we plan to launch a grant program in the near future. Stay tuned for more information on our portal.

Circular SDK
CRC Standards



Cracking the Blockchain Trilemma


Circular is promoting all the three typical values included in the blockchain trilemma, and addresses all of them together, adding also performance and programmability to the list.


Figure 11 - Circular vs Blockchain Trilemma... and Quinlemma

Scalability vs Decentralization


In the early days of the blockchain industry, scalability was a major issue for many of the initial paradigms, which limited their ability to function as a true currency. Transactions were slow and this made them unsuitable for real-time transactions. As a result, some of the leading blockchain projects turned to architectural solutions that prioritized high-performance nodes, but this came at the cost of losing decentralization. This approach led to hardware centralization, where only those who could afford expensive hardware could participate in the validation process. To address these issues, Circular has developed an innovative architectural infrastructure that is organized into classes of performance. This allows any device, including legacy computers including simple Raspberry Pis, to participate in the validation process and generate revenue. This approach ensures that anyone can become part of the blockchain ecosystem, regardless of their financial resources or technical expertise. By enabling more people to participate in the network, Circular is promoting decentralization and creating a more inclusive blockchain ecosystem.

Scalability vs Security


The security of blockchain in the web3 paradigm relies on two key factors: decentralization and computational work required for tampering. Decentralization ensures that multiple copies of the blockchain are held by independent parties, making it difficult to tamper with the data. Additionally, the computational work required to tamper with each block adds an extra layer of security. Proof of Stake (PoS) and its derivatives were developed to address security concerns in the blockchain industry by introducing a stake slashing criteria to control node behavior. However, this approach compromises decentralization as it only allows participants who can immobilize funds to join the network. Some Layer 1 solutions have attempted to mitigate this issue by implementing low staking fees, but this solution may only be effective when the token's value remains low and in general doesn't pose a valuable deterrent against higher value hacks. Furthermore, PoS sacrifices an important aspect of blockchain security: the computational power needed to secure the data in a block. This computational power, combined with decentralization and chaining, ensures a high level of security. Additionally, PoS penalizes the high-performance computing industry, which has developed GPUs to support the hashing process. In contrast, Circular takes a different approach by adopting a sustainable and high computational hashing method. It utilizes one node at a time to finalize a block, instead of a competitive mining. This approach offers a robust security standard while prioritizing environmental sustainability. Circular also has the ability to transparently switch cryptographic layers, making it prepared for the emergence of quantum computing.

Security vs Decentralization


Designing a fully decentralized infrastructure inevitably exposes the network to potential security risks. While it's true that anything can potentially be hacked, the best approach is to develop an infrastructure that can detect and mitigate the impact of potential attacks. While reducing the number of validators can improve network performance, it can also expose the network to significant security trade-offs.To address these challenges, the Circular Consensus mechanism uses a reputation based system to increase or decrease the reputation of nodes based on their behavior, which helps to limit the damage caused by malicious nodes if an attack occurs. Reputation is earned over time and can be decreased if suspicious activities are detected by the algorithm. The overall goal is to offer a mechanism that can exclude a node from the consensus in the event of an attack.By using a reputation mechanism, Circular Consensus can effectively detect and contain potential attacks while maintaining a high degree of decentralization. This approach strikes a balance between performance and security, ensuring that the network remains resilient against attacks.

Circular vs Interoperability

Native Circular's blockchains are designed to be interoperable, allowing users to perform transactions across multiple blockchains (subject to permissions for private blockchains). Additionally, smart contracts can reference transactions across all blockchains, ensuring seamless connectivity. While our current focus is on developing and rolling out protocol features that guarantee full interoperability within our ecosystem, we recognize the importance of integrating with other Layer 1 solutions in the future. As we continue to grow, we will explore opportunities for one-to-one collaborations and adopt emerging interoperability standards to enable integration with other Layer 1 blockchains. By expanding our reach and fostering collaboration, we aim to create a vibrant and interconnected blockchain network that extends beyond our native blockchains. This will enable users to leverage the benefits of multiple blockchain platforms and enhance the overall functionality and scalability of the ecosystem.

Development Roadmap

Circular has achieved full development of all its core features since the project's launch. Only a few remaining features are pending deployment, and they are scheduled to be rolled out in the near future. Importantly, these pending features will not disrupt the network's ability to operate smoothly. This demonstrates the project's commitment to ongoing improvement and innovation while maintaining the stability and functionality of the existing network.

February 2023 Hyper Code Interpreter

The release of Hyper Code is a crucial milestone that is expected to be achieved by December 2023. Our team is currently working diligently on developing the Hyper Code architecture, with a particular focus on creating the Lexer and Parser for the Interpreter modality. We have already made great progress on the Virtual CPU (VPU) that runs bytecode. While the initial modality may be available sooner than expected, our priority is to ensure its stability before release. In addition to the release of Hyper Code, we are also excited to announce the launch of the development environment on Circular's portal, along with a new and improved release of Circular's SDK that includes the new functionalities. We understand the importance of providing an optimal environment for developers to build and create on our platform. It is worth noting that while the initial release of Hyper Code in Interpreter modality may not lead to a significant increase in performance compared to other Smart Contracts, we believe it is essential to release this feature as soon as possible to support early adoption and to allow developers to become familiar with the platform. The compiler, which is currently in development, will be the key to unlocking the true potential of Hyper Code and achieving unparalleled performance in smart contract execution.

May 2024 Performance Balancer

The Performance Balancer (PB) aims to optimize the network's efficiency by balancing the workload across nodes. The PB's release will be dependent on the network traffic generated throughout 2023 and is currently expected to be available by June 2024. The PB will initially be tested on a sandbox environment and later implemented on selected subnets. Once properly trained and effective, it will be gradually extended to the entire architecture. Before the PB's adoption, a traditional algorithm will be used for network settings propagation to ensure smooth functioning of the system. The PB's implementation will greatly enhance the network's performance by dynamically balancing the workload across nodes, allowing for faster transaction processing and a more efficient use of resources.

July 2024 Hyper Code Compiler

Once the developer community becomes familiar with Hyperlang and the development of Hyper Programs, we plan to release a compiler version that will enable parallel execution of Hyper Programs, further pushing the boundaries of Hyper Code transactions. This advancement will allow for even more complex and sophisticated applications to be built on Circular's platform, and will be a significant milestone in our efforts to create a truly decentralized and scalable infrastructure. We are committed to constantly improving and expanding the capabilities of our platform, and the release of the Hyperlang compiler is a critical step in achieving this goal.

August 2024 Hyper Block

Hyper Block is a groundbreaking feature that is set to revolutionize the industry and take the implementation of DApps to new heights. With Hyper Block, the development of DApps is made fun and easy, opening up new possibilities for creators in the industry. We are proud to announce that the initial version of Hyper Block will be released shortly after the first version of Hyper Code. This release strategy ensures that both features are available almost simultaneously, allowing users to leverage the full potential of these innovative tools from day one. Overall, the release of Hyper Block is a significant milestone in the advancement of the industry, and we are excited to see the impact it will have on DApp development.

October 2024 Hyper Code GPU Support

Introducing a new feature for creative developers, the ability to write highly parallel decentralized code, which will allow access to data pools for executing algorithms that require high computation power. This feature will enable developers to create innovative and powerful DApps with new functionalities, providing a significant boost to the Circular platform's capabilities. The introduction of this feature is set to revolutionize the way DApps are built and will further enhance the value proposition of the Circular ecosystem.

Node Recruitment Program

Upon launch, Circular will have approximately 55 nodes, with 50 owned by Circular and the other 5 owned by external organizations and individuals. As transaction volume grows, we will implement node recruitment programs that balance the transaction volume and profitability threshold for each new node and mitigating 51% attack scenarios. The program will initially be managed through a whitelist available on our portal. Once we have sufficient nodes and traffic, restrictions on node adoption will be lifted, allowing anyone with a device capable of meeting processing power and connectivity requirements to set up a node. Old computers running almost any operating system will be sufficient to support at least simple token transactions and could become valuable assets to start building a personal node farm capable of earning passive income. The node software will include a benchmarking utility to determine eligibility to join the network. Installing and setting up the node software is a simple process, and we're working hard to make it even more user-friendly. In addition, all nodes will be remotely configured by the Performance Balancer for maximum efficiency, with new software releases automatically downloaded and installed.



Figure 12 - Anyone can run a node.

Nodes are rewarded in two different ways:

1) A Transaction fee that is divided in 4 different components:
  • Entry Fee: A fee paid to the Network Access Gateways for letting the transaction into the network.
  • Broadcast Fees: A fee paid to the first node to receive and propagate a transaction to the network.
  • Priority Fee: An optional fee that can be included in transactions or smart contracts to speed up execution scheduling (currently not active).
  • Execution Fee: A fee paid for executing Hyper Code (smart contracts).

2) Block Rewards : A reward paid for each block mined by a node.

Despite the number of fees, the total amount is relatively low and depends on the type of transactions and code. Transaction prices will range from $0.001 to $0.035 depending on the resources required. A detailed pricing model will be published on our website. New nodes will begin with a low trust level that increases as they contribute to network tasks, with each node having its own wallet address. Maintaining a high reputation level will provide node owners with privileges within Circular's community (TBD). All pricing will be algorithmically calculated in order to maintain them comptetitive.

F.A.Q.

What problem do we address?

(In a few words...)

  • Blockchain for Healthcare: Circular Protocol is designed to support specifically healthcare applications that require compliance with specific regulations (GDRP, HIPAA, etc.). In addition we support also DeFi and GameFi applications with specific features.
  • Transaction throughput: The need for higher transaction speed is leading some of the best technologies to higher minimum requirements for the hardware and connectivity, losing decentralization (hardware centralization).
  • Smart Contract Execution: The need for higher speeds affects also the execution of smart contracts, which are still not fast and scalable enough (which leads to hardware centralization again).
  • Data Persistence: Many projects don't adopt blockchains because, although they would be a valid offering toward their clients, to support their technology, they donít like the fact that once a project is closed, the data persists beyond the end of the project itself, and so does the liability connected to that data.
  • Coin/Token Interdependency: Micro-economic systems (for example metaverses and MMOs) adopt soft currencies built on existing platforms and tokens. Due to the price fluctuation of the native cryptocurrency, the game currency value is also affected and dependent on the transaction processing fees.

How?


  • Blockchain for Healthcare: Architectural features allow Circular to easily meet some of the requirements for most common regulatory landscape in healthcare.
  • Transaction Rate: Circular's architecture provides a high transaction rate without sacrificing decentralization or requiring high-performance hardware. Additionally, our architecture ensures that nodes remain profitable regardless of their performance.
  • Smart Contract Execution: Our Hyper Code architecture addresses the need for faster and more scalable smart contracts without compromising performance, security, or decentralization. We aim to introduce a new paradigm in decentralized software development that offers scalability, security, and decentralization.
  • Data Persistence: Circular offers project-specific blockchains that can be dismissed once a project is completed, eliminating the need to keep data alive and reducing potential risks. This feature provides a solution for projects that require blockchain technology but don't want to assume liability for their data beyond the lifespan of the project.
  • Coin/Token Interdependency: Circular's private blockchains for micro-economic systems remove dependencies on external factors, allowing for better control and improved stability in transactions. Transactions in micro-economic systems are not dependent on any native token, reducing the impact of price fluctuations on game currency values.

Is the Circular blockchain already built?


Yes, our blockchain has already been built and is working. We miss some minor components and the development is an ongoing process. Our development roadmap shows when the main missing components will be deployed.

What is in few words the value proposition of Circular?


The real value proposition of Circular blockchain lies in its innovative and efficient architecture, which is designed to offer high throughput, scalability, and security. The use of a novel consensus mechanism, together with the adoption of advanced technologies such as Hyper Code and the Performance Balancer, allows Circular to offer a more robust and sustainable ecosystem for developers and users. The node adoption program ensures a decentralized and transparent network. Overall, Circular blockchain has the potential to become a leading player in the web 3.0 infrastructure, offering a reliable and performant platform for decentralized applications and services.

Why a Coin?


Circular's infrastructure runs on a native coin called "Circular" (Ticker:CIRX), which is used to power the different services and pay fees and rewards.

When will the coins be released?


The coins will be issued once the regulatory compliance will be reached (work in progress).

Will I be able to trade CIRX?


Depending upon the success of the fund raise we are aiming to list the coin on some of the most popular trading platforms by the end of Q1 2024. This will be subject to terms and conditions of the different platforms and the time required to comply with the regulations.

What do I need to buy Circular coins?


All you'll need to do is to follow us on our social medias and when the coin will be issued we will announce it together with the instructions to purchase it.

Where will I find all the updates on the project?

Circular's Team will be able to answer to more questions on the different channels:



For more complex enquiries Email: info@circularlabs.io

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Circular Coin Economics



CIRX Tokenomics Here

Conclusions

In conclusion, Circular blockchain presents a new and innovative solution to the existing problems in the blockchain layer 1 industry. With a fixed supply of coins and a focus on long-term adoption and community engagement, Circular aims to create a sustainable and decentralized ecosystem. The unique features of the architecture, such as the Hyper Code Virtual Machine and Performance Balancer, make Circular stand out from other blockchain solutions. The team's commitment to transparency, fairness, and innovation will enable Circular to become a leading platform for DApp development and deployment. The vesting plan ensures a fair distribution of coins, incentivizing long-term commitment and engagement from all stakeholders. With a clear roadmap and a strong community, Circular is poised for success and looks forward to making a significant impact in the blockchain industry.

We look forward to building Circular with you!



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